The Full Form of DNA is Deoxyribonucleic acid. Deoxyribonucleic acid is a polymer composed of two polynucleotide chains that coil around each other to form a double helix carrying genetic instructions for the development, functioning, growth, and reproduction of all known organisms and many viruses. DNA and ribonucleic acid are nucleic acids.
The full form of DNS is Deoxyribonucleic Acid. DNA is a set of molecules responsible for transmitting and carrying the inherited materials or genetic instructions from parents to children genetically. DNA is an organic compound that has a unique molecular structure. It is found in all eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. The Swiss biologist Johannes Friedrich Miescher first recognized and named DNA in 1869, during his research on white blood cells. The double helix structure of a molecule of DNA was discovered later by James Watson and Francis Crick using experimental evidence. Finally, it has been shown that DNA is responsible for processing a human being’s genetic information from one generation to another generation.
Someone could think of the DNA structure as a twisted ladder in shape. This structure is defined as a double helix, as seen in the above figure. DNA’s basic building blocks are nucleotides, containing a carbon-sugar group, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen base.
As we have discussed the full form of DNA, we now are going to discuss the different types of DNA. There are 3 types of DNA listed below.
A – DNA
It is right-handed DNA and dehydrated DNA takes the form of an A form that secures DNA under active conditions such as protein binding, and desiccation also removes the DNA solvent.
B – DNA
B – DNA is the most general DNA conformation, which is a right-handed helix. A majority of DNA has a type B conformation under normal physiological conditions.
Z – DNA
Z-DNA is a left-handed DNA, where the double helix in a zig-zag pattern winds to the left, and Alexander Rich and Andres Wang discovered it. Z – DNA is located ahead of a gene’s starting site and is therefore assumed to play a role in controlling the gene.
Functions of DNA
DNA is the genetic material that conserves all the inherited information coded in its nitrogen base structure.
DNA passes the genetic information from one cell to its daughters and from one generation to the next.
Every person has a sequence of DNA that doesn’t fit with others. This DNA property is used in DNA fingerprinting, a method used to identify a person from their DNA.
DNA influences metabolic reactions of the cells with the aid of hormones, enzymes, and specific RNAs.
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